Draught beer is special for the consumer, and it makes a major contribution to the image of a brewery. The dispensing of beer is at the end of the quality chain and, as such, it has a considerable influence on the quality of the product when it reaches the consumer. This contribution describes initial results from an investigation into the influence of hygiene conditions of beverage dispensing equipment on quality of product.

The frequently inadequate status of hygiene in beer from open dispensing equipment became known to the general public for the first time as a result of routine investigations carried out by
the responsible surveillance authorities (1994, 1997) (3,5).g. micro-organisms, contaminations, odours, temperatures or climatic influences" (1).

A brewery laboratory should nowadays regard itself as a service provider for the overall beer production process. The functions to be offered by the laboratory are defined by production or filling.

Laboratory staff in white coats attract attention in the production and filling area, also due to the way they are dressed. They are oftentimes not regarded as helpful colleagues but as inspectors checking on others.
A brewery laboratory should nowadays regard itself as a service provider for the overall beer production process. The functions to be offered by the laboratory are defined by production or filling. The brewery laboratory operates in the context of an internal customer-supplier relationship, i.e. the laboratory is a fully fledged service provider.

Taking used cleaning caustics from the beverage industry as pH correction agents for the acidification step, an investigation was carried out into the consequences for process variables in pre-treatment of organically highly contaminated effluent in two-stage anaerobic compact plants. In the tests, the caustic originated from CIP and bottle washing units of breweries.

reweries and other operations in the beverage industry produce large volumes of effluent every year, this is considerably contaminated with residuals from production and with dirt particles and caustic solutions from cleaning processes. In Germany, most beverage operations still discharge effluent indirectly into public sewage. This leads to considerable costs in the non-productive area.67 (1). An average of 0.

The multiplicity of regulations imposed by authorities governing disposal of brewery effluent are becoming increasingly important in promoting environmental protection. In-house measures to reduce effluent volumes and concentrations are inadequate in many instances.

Long-term objectives of water policy include preserving the ecological equilibrium of waters and assuring quantitative and qualitative supplies of drinking water and service water. Between 0.4 and 0.8 m3 of fresh water/hl of sales beer are required in beer production. Thus, the brewing process gives rise to a specific effluent volume of 0.25 - 0.6 m3/hl (1). Costs for both fresh water and effluent are currently in the same range, at about 2 - 4 DM/m3.

A new approach was necessary because of a change in function for beverage crates, having shifted from a simple assemblage for food packaging to an advertising vehicle in the brewing industry.

Enormous investments were made in converting the crate pool, in expensive sorting plants for empties and setting up new (distribution)/logistics systems in order to increase market share. For marketing reasons, mainly bright colours, together with elaborate multi-colour prints, oftentimes supplemented with metallic effects, have been selected for dedicated crates. These form a dramatic contrast to the hitherto conventional solid ox-blood red Euro crates. After a few cycles, the exclusive appearance suffers, it has to be able to survive the harsh every-day environment of beverage crates.g....

Apart from thermal processes for preservation of food, various chemical agents are used for cleaning and disinfection of plant and equipment. Studies have shown that Anti-Keim® 50 has proved to be a suitable means of achieving good hygiene.

Microbially induced spoilage of food is caused mainly by bacteria and fungi (1). In terms of metabolic physiology, they are very versatile and are thus able to metabolise practically all natural substances. Accordingly, beer and sugar-containing non-alcoholic beverages provide optimum living conditions for growth and propagation of micro-organisms so that very good hygiene is an essential prerequisite for assuring microbiological quality of products and a long shelf-life. 1). It is highly effective even at low concentrations.

Monobromoacetic acid (MBA) is a disinfectant which for various reasons has continued to lose ground on the market in recent years. Many breweries have meantime switched to other disinfectants, peroxidic substances have in the main become well established. The State Institute for Research and Testing of Brewery Equipment of the Technical University Munich-Weihenstephan has investigated MBA from an ecological standpoint.

For many years, Hallertauer Hopfenveredelungsgesellschaft has been carrying out residue checks, commissioned by the merchant companies Steiner, Lupofresh and Horst Company. As there have recently been press reports on "Pesticides in Beer", we are taking this opportunity to describe some results relating to the 1997 hop harvest.

An evaluation of ecological impact of cleaning agents and disinfectants has to include chain lubricants and their individual components. Some of these agents have good microbicidal action so as to ensure hygiene on conveyer belts. The extent to which they - and a number of other cleaning agents and disinfectants - have an influence on degradability in waste water and whether they themselves are biodegradable has been investigated at the State Institute for Research and Testing of Brewing Technology in Weihenstephan.

Test methods used have been described in "Ecological aspects of cleaning and disinfection, Part 1: Monobromoacetic acid" (see "Brauwelt International" no. VI, 1999, p. 508). They were displaced by amine-based agents.

The present article deals with implementation of the HACCP concept. Use of chlorine dioxide makes disinfection operations more transparent and reduces running costs.

In recent decades, complicated technologies, in particular aimed at improving quality, have been introduced in various areas of the beverage and food industries. Even prior to efforts at harmonisation under EC Directives, one was certainly aware of health as well as economic implications of microbial product contamination. As a result, hygiene specifications were drawn up for all production steps.

Chlorine dioxide is a disinfectant which can be produced cheaply as needed from commercial chemicals on site.g. disinfection in the cold water zone of a bottle washer.

In this second part, the presence of organic complexing agents in brewery effluent, their degradability as well as possible inhibiting effects are investigated.

EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents are used for cleaning purposes in breweries to prevent precipitation of calcium and magnesium hardness in an alkaline environment. They have a chelating effect on calcium and magnesium ions which are thus withdrawn from the system and cannot react with the precipitating counterions. Typical points of use are specially formulated cleaning agents, additives for lye cleaning and conveyor lubricants.

It is said to attack concrete, can lead to a species shift in water bodies, remobilises heavy metals and contributes to eutrophication of water bodies. 508).

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