The electron spin resonance method is suitable both for determination of endogenous antioxidative activity in finished beer and also for controlling all stages of the whole brewing process. In addition, should antioxidative activity be inadequate, it allows conclusions to be drawn about the causes of same. In order to enhance the information value of the analysis, existing methods were revised to reflect the most recent research findings (following on the lectures delivered at the 39th and 40th Technological Seminar in Weihenstephan: Handbook 2007, 7/1 - 7/10; Handbook 2006, 4/1 - 4/9).

Degradation of proteins during the malting process is essential for the quality of the final beer. The objective of this article was to obtain a better understanding of protein changes that occur during malting by using a novel Lab-on-a-Chip technique.

In the context of a diploma thesis, the physical method of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for determination of the most important beer parameters was evaluated at the Research Centre Weihenstephan for Brewing and Food Quality. The FTIR measurement method is based on transmission measured in the middle infrared range with which up to 15 beer parameters could be determined simultaneously. This article describes the measurement principle and use of infrared spectroscopy in beer analysis.

What is the correct amount and appropriate kind of bitterness in beer? It is a question of taste. This subject is known to have fueled some hot debates. “Bitter” has been and continues to be an important adjective for describing beer. The acids found in the bittering substances of hops are primarily responsible for this. Most beers exhibit a bitterness between 20 and 50 bittering units. However, bitterness is an extremely complex concept, and one which presents both sensory and analytical challenges.

For over 40 years, the Braugersten-Gemeinschaft [EV] has provided the malting and brewing industries with comprehensive data and research results on quality malting barley. One focal point of the research is constant evaluation of newly approved varieties. Primarily spring barley varieties were tested for their malting and brewing suitability, at first as part of the Frankfurter Programm and since 1995 as part of the Berliner Programm, and the results published in the Braugerstenjahrbuch (Annual Malting Barley Manual ).

The wheat beer brewery Schneider in Kelheim has a current annual output of about 300 000 hectolitres of Schneider Weisse and is experiencing continuous growth, particularly in terms of exports. It was decided to remain true to the natural production method of bottle fermentation. Despite the risk potentials involved, thermal treatment of the beers with flash pasteurisation and/or filtration is definitely out of the question for the brewery.

Quality and transparency are key words in food production nowadays. The hop industry has been very conscious of this for a long time. Long before pertinent EU

The mashing process is substantially influenced by the quality of malt. From year to year, due to the changing nature of the barley raw material and thus of the associated malt, it is necessary to modify the mashing processes and adapt them to the particular situation. The “Shakesbeer” mashing system opens up new pathways making it possible to achieve better extract yields with shorter mashing times. Commercial advantages accrue, without any quality disadvantages arising.

The “alpha clause”, drafted in 2003 by German breweries and hop suppliers, went into effect for the first time since its inception for the 2006 hop harvest. The mean alpha acid content of almost all aroma varieties from the 2006 harvest was more than 15 % below the ten-year average. This article discusses the function of this clause on the basis of the experience gained from the last hop harvest.

Yeast management in a brewery comprises the processes of yeast culturing in the laboratory, yeast propagation, transfer to the plant, and working with cropped yeast. Working with cropped yeast encompasses the time of yeast harvest, yeast handling proper after harvesting, storage and re-pitching. However, yeast propagation is the core of a yeast management system. In this article, the authors report on ten years’ experience in commercial operations with assimilation technology.

Winter barley has a higher yield and is therefore of economical interest for farmers and the malt industry. However, in Germany only an area of approximately 30 000 ha exists for the cultivation of winter malting barley. One reason for this is the malting quality of winter barley which is

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