Fermentation - Process transparency and control using flow cytometry
Current process control is directed towards the behaviour of the overall population and not towards individual cells. It is therefore necessary to have continuous analysis of the bioprocess, this involves measuring the direct influence of chemical and physical process variables on the micro-organisms at every point during growth.
The fermentative ability of micro-organisms in biotechnical processes is used to produce a large number of food and luxury items such as beer. In the main, microbial populations in such processes are axenic cultures which are controlled in a static process. Due to the proliferation of micro-organisms during the biotechnical process, growth conditions in this culture are never constant, they change all the time.
- Fermentation - Process transparency and control using flow cytometry (124-127)
Results on semi-industrial continuous top fermentation with the Meura-Delta immobilised yeast fermenter
This paper reviews the results obtained for the Meura-Delta immobilised yeast fermenter, on lab, pilot and micro-brewery scale for different top fermenting strains using industrial hopped wort.
In recent years, immobilised cell technology has become a rapidly expanding research area. For the application in brewing, immobilisation of yeast cells implicates the retention of catalytic cells within a fermenter. To be a viable alternative to traditional free cell batch fermentation systems, immobilised cells must have considerably long working lifetimes characteristically measured in months. Mass transfer limitations of substrate into and products out of the immobilised cells and associated carrier are of critical interest.
- Results on semi-industrial continuous top fermentation with the Meura-Delta immo
Visual control of fermentation and tank cleaning
A new soft- and hardware package which allows the brewer to permanently assess and visually control the fermentation process as well as the subsequent cleaning process even in closed cylindroconical vessels is presented.
- Visual control of fermentation and tank cleaning (145)
Automation of fermentation using continuous extract measurement in cylindroconical fermenters
This paper describes continuous extract measurement in fermenters and storage tanks. Using the Deltapilot S hydrostatic pressure sensor and an FMB 654 evaluation device, very high accuracy can be achieved in representing the decline in extract content during fermentation. This provides breweries with a measuring method for automating fermentation.
- Automation of fermentation using continuous extract measurement in cylindroconic
Automated measurement of extract content in fermenters
This article describes continuous measurement of extract content in fermenters, based on hydrostatic pressure. Linkage to an existing bus system is envisaged, and existing transmitters (e.g. for level measurement) as well as temperature sensors and tank empty sensors can be integrated in the system.
- Automated measurement of extract content in fermenters (128-129)
- Automated measurement of extract content in fermenters (130-135)
Cooling of fermenters
Investment and operational costs of fermenting, maturation and storage of beer are dependent on type of cooling system used, arrangement of installation and method of thermal insulation. All investment and operational costs must be compared in detail in order to make the right choice.
- Cooling of fermenters (118-123)
Observing fermentation with the help of a new control system referred to as "TopScan"
Using a type of endoscope, it has become possible for the first time to observe and control the fermentation process in closed fermenters.
- Observing fermentation with the help of a new control system referred to as "Top
Focus on new plants: Ringnes, Gjelleråsen/Norway: It’s achieved! Move, installation, commissioning and inspection of filter lines
The move of a filter line of 300 hl/h from the centre of Oslo to the suburb of Gjelleråsen as well as the integration of a new "Primus Filter Line" with a capacity of 400 hl/h will be described in the following article.
The Pripps Ringnes Group, the leading beverage entrepreneur in Northern Europe has built a new beverage production plant in the outskirts of Oslo. The project was divided into two stages. Stage 1: production and filling of soft drinks and mineral water, which was already completed. Stage 2: production and filling of beer had to be completed.
In June 2000 SeitzSchenk Filtersystems received the order to integrate a new PRIMUS filter line of 400 hl/h as well as to remove one of the two existing ZHF filter lines of 300 hl/h.
- Focus on new plants: Ringnes, Gjelleråsen/Norway: It’s achieved! Move, instal
Some developments in immobilized fermentation of beer during the last 30 years
Continuity is a common phenomenon in the chemical industry where reactions are often autocatalysed or the catalyst is inorganic. But, preference for continuity in large-scale operations shows that economics favour continuous operation. Brewing, on the other hand, relies on another type of catalyst: a living organism - yeast.
However, continuous fermentation of beer was the subject of many research papers and patents in the 1950s and 1960s. By the early 1970s most of the continuous fermentation processes with free cells were abandoned. Immobilization was seen as a technique that might solve problems encountered. In 1971 Narziss and Hellich published the Bio-Brew process, which renewed research into continuous fermentation. 1993), but these were not major ones. 1996).
- Some developments in immobilized fermentation of beer during the last 30 years (
A new alternative for CIP disinfection in breweries CIP disinfectants - their use and evolution
Disinfection using CIP procedures has been common practice in fermenting, storage and filter cellars of breweries for about the last 20 years. The disinfectant solution is recovered again after use (returned to storage) for re-use.
Apart from conductivity-controlled return to storage, cold application is one of the characteristics of CIP disinfection in breweries. While disinfection procedures are commonly carried out at elevated temperatures, even including steaming of containers and pipelines, in other sections of the food industry, cleaning and disinfection processes in the context of beer production are performed predominantly at low temperatures, even at temperatures significantly below 10°C, in compliance with technological imperatives.g.
- A new alternative for CIP disinfection in breweries CIP disinfectants - their
Externally mounted continuous measurement of extract in the fermenter
Measurement of apparent extract during fermentation is one of the most important pieces of information in beer production. Sample withdrawal and subsequent laboratory analysis is still the most common method of measurement.
Continuous automatic measurement is currently possible, using e.g. differential pressure measurement of a fixed level and a change in static pressure due to a change in density. However, tappings have to be retrofitted in existing tanks for this type of measurement. This might lead to problems in connection with welding work, erection of scaffolding, approvals by TUEV (Technical Inspection Organisation in Germany) and downtimes. For new installations, the tank design might have to be modified. Delgado) - and brought to market maturity.e. 2).g.
- Externally mounted continuous measurement of extract in the fermenter (94-96)
Monitoring of bottle and keg cleaning in the filling process
More attention is now being paid to Quality Control as problems due to inadequately cleaned beer and beverage containers, bottles and kegs have been occurring more and more frequently in recent years. For example, residues can have an effect on the taste and lead to microbiological problems. Monitoring of the cleanliness of the packaging is becoming an indispensable measure in order to avoid adversely affecting the product and expensive recall campaigns.
Today’s technologies make it possible to carefully monitor the cleaning process of bottles and kegs/casks. As part of its comprehensive range of quality and monitoring instruments for laboratories, and for process monitoring in the brewing and beverage industry, Haffmans B.V. ...
- Monitoring of bottle and keg cleaning in the filling process (189-190)
Optimising yeast technology
In recent years, increasing attention has been given to yeast, particularly to yeast quality. The reproducibility of the physiological state of vital yeast in order to achieve consistent beer quality is a primary aim in yeast technology.
Fermentation in a brewery begins with yeast propagation (aerobic metabolism to a limited degree) and then fermentation as such (anaerobic metabolism) whereby ethanol, CO2 and fermentation by-products are formed. The two processes cannot be clearly delineated and proceed partly in parallel. The wide sweep becomes obvious when comparing this process with what happens in a yeast factory: this aims at producing the largest possible quantity of biomass with suitable quality and little alcohol and concomitant substances. 1). ...
- Optimising yeast technology (266-269)
State-of-the-art neutralisation technology using fermentation carbonic acid
The Martini Brewery in Kassel, Germany, has decided for a neutralisation plant manufactured by WAG-Freiburg GmbH, Germany, which uses fermentation carbonic acid as neutralisation agent. The new installation has fully met the brewery’s request to treat wastewater while conserving resources and the environment in an economic and optimal way.
- State-of-the-art neutralisation technology using fermentation carbonic acid (243
Corona in the U.S. | K. said, “I could make good use of someone who could give me advice.” “Yes, but if I’m to give you advice I’ll have to know what it’s all about,” said Miss Bürstner. “That’s exactly the problem,” said K., “I don’t know that myself.” Performance was not the issue in Modelo’s ignoble severing of ties to its U.S. importer, the Gambrinus Company. But what was the reason? You might be forgiven for thinking that Kafka could have written this parable on the provisionality of relations, the whimsy of power, the absurdity of life. But fear not. Or perhaps fear plenty. Because Kafka had nothing to do with it.
- The trial (212-216_BWI06)
An efficient piping concept for process plants
The new Tuchenhagen Eco-Matrix piping system described here provides levels of cost effectiveness and savings hitherto not achieved, as well as new efficiency in process plant engineering.
- An efficient piping concept for process plants (250-252_BWI06)
Romania’s largest private brewery installs three new lines
In March 1992, three Romanian businessmen established a small brewery in Targu Mures – under the name of S.C. Bere Mures S.A. Currently, the company is moving towards 1.5 million hl annual output. The newly installed equipment is geared to reflect this development and to cater for the planned market extension.
- Romania’s largest private brewery installs three new lines (98-99_BWI07)
Combined returnables and non-returnables bottling at the Süral Brewery on the Turkish Riviera
Since early 2006, the Turkish Süral Group, which operates a chain of hotels on the Turkish Riviera, has been brewing its own beer and indeed bottling it for consumption not only in its own hotels but also for the free market, both national and international. At the beginning of the year 2006, Süral installed a complete Krones beer line for handling both returnable and non-returnable glass bottles. The line has been dimensioned for a speed of 24 000 0.33 l or 0.2 l bottles an hour, and for 20 000 0.5 l bottles an hour.
- Combined returnables and non-returnables bottling at the Süral Brewery on the Tu
Not just a brewery group
Japan, the ‘Land of the Rising Sun’, is the forth-largest island state in the world after Indonesia, Madagascar, and Papua New Guinea. The Asahi Group acts as a ‘big player’ within the Japanese beverage market and also in the food and health sector. The company philosophy of only supplying top quality to consumers has hitherto been realized for example by means of KHS equipment, recently in the area of filling, pasteurizing and keg technology.
- Not just a brewery group (40-43_BWI08)
“Complete carefree package”
Canned beverages are popular worldwide and are enjoying a general growth trend. For perfect filling of any type of can, the KHS Innofill DVD offers a computer-controlled volumetric filling system that has already proven itself worldwide for many years. While retaining a comprehensive list of advantages, the Innofill DVD has undergone further development. Increased availability thanks to minimization of changeover work, faster sanitizing cycles, hygienic design and enhanced automation – these are just a few of the features the new Innofill DVD design boasts.
- “Complete carefree package” (106-108_BWI09)
Dynamic keg beer market
In recent years definite changes have taken place in the international beer market. Breweries have tried to expand their outlets and to exploit new markets, which leads to expanded routes of transportation and massively shorter circulation rates of empties. This has a huge impact especially on the sector of draft beer. The following article shows the importance one way kegs have in this context.
- Dynamic keg beer market (286-289_BWI12)
Success factors for "smart" beverage manufacturers
International corporations are frequently not only characterized by their size, but by their complexity. Spread over multiple culturally and economically diverse countries, with production plants which have grown heterogeneously over time, beverage manufacturers often face unequal levels of performance and unequal degrees of automation. To achieve global harmonization, corporate standards are rolled out step by step.
- Success factors for "smart" beverage manufacturers (33-35_BWI_1601)
Yeast in breweries
The strains used in breweries and their metabolism and metabolites were covered in detail in the article dealing with beer fermentation. This part of the series discusses a different issue relating to yeast i.e. yeast management, in particular for smaller breweries.
- Yeast in breweries (24-25_BWI_1601)
Barrels of beer – the influence of microbes
In the previous installment in this series, we discussed the art and science of coopering and choosing the best wood for constructing barrels as well as the contributions of wood to the flavors and aromas of the beverages stored in them. The third installment in this series serves as an introduction to the influence of the microbes living in oaken barrels and to the recent adoption of barrels and other wooden vessels by craft brewers.
- Barrels of beer – the influence of microbes (240-242_BWI_1604)
Aroma compounds in Southern German wheat beer – an overview
The aroma of Southern German wheat beer or “weissbier” is less dependent upon on the concentrations of individual substances and much more on the interplay of these substances and their overall composition relative to one another. The interplay between esters, higher alcohols and other key components, such as 4-vinyl guaiacol, determine which notes dominate in weissbier. The desired aroma profile (estery-fruity, yeasty, clove-like or neutral) can be achieved by guiding the formation of the respective aroma compounds through technological means. However, some knowledge of the composition of these individual substances is essential. In order to provide breweries with an understanding of how this can be done, the Weihenstephan Research Center for Brewing and Food Quality has offered the “aroma profile” analysis package for several years now.
- Aroma compounds in Southern German wheat beer – an overview (334-339_BWI_1605)
So the Story Goes – The Story of Gose, Part IV
The final two installments in this series serve as a guide to the methods employed for producing gose over the many centuries of its existence. Though some of the details of its production have been lost to the mists of time or have gone to the grave with its secretive brewers, written records have preserved at least some of the ingredients and techniques used to brew gose at various points in its history. Two ingredients collectively unique to gose seem to have remained constant throughout the beer’s long existence: coriander and table salt.
- So the Story Goes – The Story of Gose, Part IV (246-251_BWI_1704)
So the Story Goes – The Story of Gose, Part V
The final installment in this series continues with a look at modern methods for brewing gose. Two delectable modern interpretations of gose brewed in Saxony are described below as well.
- So the Story Goes – The Story of Gose, Part V (348-351_BWI_1705)
Industry-wide agreement on consumer information
The Brewers of Europe endorsed on 12 March 2018 a joint framework with other alcoholic beverage sectors to voluntarily list ingredients and nutrition information and, through the Beer Annex to the framework, reiterated brewers’ long-standing commitment to transparency in this area, just as the European Commission, Parliament, Health Council, civil society groups and, most importantly, consumers expect.
A weekend of spontaneous fermentation
Have you ever wanted to explore the wild beers of Belgium? Perhaps it’s a bit challenging attempting to drive the highways or take trains and buses around the byways of the Belgium in search of the breweries still producing authentic lambic? What if you could taste all of them – most of them on tap – at one location with like-minded individuals in an agreeable venue? If this is what you seek, then the Weekend der Spontane Gisting (Weekend of Spontaneous Fermentation), organized by the Opstalse Bierpallieters, fits the bill perfectly.
- A weekend of spontaneous fermentation (262-263_BWI_1604)
Beer monopoly podcast No. 9: Direct to consumer
It was a remarkable admission by James Watt, one of the founders of Scottish craft brewer BrewDog: He said that in March 2020 he broke down in tears when the severity of covid-19 became clear: BrewDog had lost almost 70 percent of its revenue overnight, almost all of its 100 bars were closed, most of its export markets stopped ordering. Pivoting its website to prominently feature its online shop proved a way out. BrewDog ended a potentially ruinous year profitably. So what can craft brewers learn from BrewDog’s e-commerce model?